The circumstances for which there was a consensus account for less than 1 p.c of the physique of classical jurisprudence. Classical jurists held that human reason is a present from God which must be exercised to its fullest capacity. However, they believed that use of reason alone is inadequate to differentiate proper from incorrect, and that rational argumentation must draw its content material from the physique of transcendental data revealed within the Quran and through the sunnah of Muhammad.
Consensus (ijma) might in precept elevate a ruling based on probable proof to absolute certainty. This classical doctrine drew its authority from a series of hadiths stating that the Islamic neighborhood could by no means agree on an error. This type of consensus was technically outlined as agreement of all competent jurists in any specific technology, performing as representatives of the group. However, the practical problem of acquiring and ascertaining such an agreement meant that it had little impact on authorized development. A extra pragmatic type of consensus, which could be decided by consulting works of outstanding jurists, was used to substantiate a ruling in order that it couldn’t be reopened for additional discussion.